Provinces and Territories of Canada

For “Canadian Province” as used in biology, see Circumboreal Region.

Royal Military College of Canada features arms of the Canadian provinces and territories (1965)

The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the Yukon.

The major difference between a Canadian lieutenant governor, whereas the territories are not sovereign, but simply parts of the federal realm, and have a commissioner.

Location of provinces and territories

A clickable map of Canada exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories, and their capitals.
Victoria Whitehorse Edmonton Yellowknife Regina Winnipeg Iqaluit Toronto Ottawa Quebec Fredericton Charlottetown Halifax St. John's Northwest Territories Saskatchewan Newfoundland and Labrador New Brunswick Victoria Yukon British Columbia Whitehorse Alberta Edmonton Regina Yellowknife Nunavut Winnipeg Manitoba Ontario Iqaluit Ottawa Quebec Toronto Quebec City Fredericton Charlottetown Nova Scotia Halifax Prince Edward Island St. John's

A clickable map of Canada exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories, and their capitals.


Flag Arms Province Postal
Capital[1] Largest city
(by population)[2]
Entered Confederation[3] Population
(May 2011)[4]
Area: land (km2)[5] Area: water (km2)[5] Area: total (km2)[5] Official language(s)[6] Federal Parliament: Commons seats[7] Federal Parliament: Senate seats[7]
Ontario ON Toronto Toronto July 1, 1867 12,851,821 917,741 158,654 1,076,395 EnglishA 106 24
Quebec QC Quebec City Montreal July 1, 1867 7,903,001 1,356,128 185,928 1,542,056 FrenchB 75 24
Nova Scotia NS Halifax HalifaxC July 1, 1867 921,727 53,338 1,946 55,284 EnglishD 11 10
New Brunswick NB Fredericton Saint John July 1, 1867 751,171 71,450 1,458 72,908 EnglishE
10 10
Manitoba MB Winnipeg Winnipeg July 15, 1870 1,208,268 553,556 94,241 647,797 EnglishF 14 6
British Columbia BC Victoria Vancouver July 20, 1871 4,400,057 925,186 19,549 944,735 EnglishA 36 6
Prince Edward Island PE Charlottetown Charlottetown July 1, 1873 140,204 5,660 0 5,660 EnglishA 4 4
Saskatchewan SK Regina Saskatoon September 1, 1905 1,033,381 591,670 59,366 651,036 EnglishA 14 6
Alberta AB Edmonton Calgary September 1, 1905 3,645,257 642,317 19,531 661,848 EnglishA 28 6
Newfoundland and Labrador NL St. John’s St. John’s March 31, 1949 514,536 373,872 31,340 405,212 EnglishA 7 6
Total provinces 33,369,423 5,499,918 563,013 6,062,931 305 102


A.^ De facto; French has limited constitutional status
B.^ Charter of the French Language; English has limited constitutional status
C.^ Nova Scotia dissolved cities in 1996 in favour of regional municipalities; its largest regional municipality is therefore substituted
D.^ Nova Scotia has very few bilingual statutes (three in English and French; one in English and Polish); some Government bodies have legislated names in both English and French
E.^ Section Sixteen of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
F.^ Manitoba Act

Provincial legislature buildings


There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no Canadian Arctic islands). The following table lists the territories in order of precedence (each province has precedence over all the territories, regardless of the date each territory was created).

Territories of Canada
Flag Arms Territory Postal
Capital and largest city[1] Entered Confederation[3] Population
(May 2011)[4]
Area: land (km2)[5] Area: water (km2)[5] Area: total (km2)[5] Official languages Federal Parliament: Commons seats[7] Federal Parliament: Senate seats[7]
Northwest Territories NT Yellowknife July 15, 1870 41,462 1,183,085 163,021 1,346,106 Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, Tłįchǫ[11] 1 1
Yukon YT Whitehorse June 13, 1898 33,897 474,391 8,052 482,443 English
1 1
Nunavut NU Iqaluit April 1, 1999 31,906 1,936,113 157,077 2,093,190 Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut,
English, French[13]
1 1
Total territories 107,265 3,593,589 328,150 3,921,739 3 3

Territorial legislature buildings

Territorial evolution

CANADA TIMELINE: Evolution of the borders and the names of Canada’s Provinces and Territories

Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia are the original provinces, formed when [14]

The [17]

1905 Provinces and territories of Canada coat of arms postcard

In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a [22]

In 1903, the [26]

All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada covering 3,921,739 km2 (1,514,192 sq mi) in land area.[5] They are often referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposes.[27] For much of the Northwest Territories early history it was divided into several districts for ease of administration.[28] The District of Keewatin was created as a separate territory from 1876 to 1905, after which, as the Keewatin Region, it became an administration district of the Northwest Territories.[29] In 1999, it was dissolved when it became part of Nunavut.


Main article: Canadian federalism

Theoretically, provinces have a great deal of power relative to the federal government, with jurisdiction over many [31]

Provincial and territorial legislatures have no second chamber like the [38]

Federal, Provincial, and Territorial terminology compared
Canada Governor General Prime Minister Parliament Parliamentarian
Senate House of Commons Senator Member of Parliament
Ontario Lieutenant Governor Premier n/a* Legislative Assembly n/a* Member of the Provincial Parliament (MPP)
Quebec National Assembly Member of the National Assembly (MNA)
and Labrador
House of Assembly Member of the House of Assembly (MHA)
Nova Scotia Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA)
Other provinces Legislative Assembly
Territories Commissioner
*There were historically provincial Legislative Councils analogous to the federal Senate in Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, Prince Edward Island, and pre-confederation in Lower Canada, Upper Canada, Province of Canada, British Columbia, and Newfoundland. The last of these was abolished in 1968.

Each of the territories elects one [40]

Provincial parties

Most provinces have provincial counterparts to the three national federal parties. However, some provincial parties are not formally linked to the federal parties that share the same name.Saskatchewan Party.

The provincial political climate of Quebec is quite different: the main split is between sovereignty, represented by the Parti Québécois, and federalism, represented primarily by the Quebec Liberal Party.[42]

The provincial Progressive Conservative parties are also now separate from the federal Conservative Party, which resulted from a merger between the Progressive Conservatives and the Canadian Alliance.[43] In most provinces the provincial Liberal Party separated from the federal Liberal Party and are now an independent entities.

Current provincial/territorial governments (2014)
Province Lieutenant Governor/
Premier[45] Party in government[45] Majority/Minority
Ontario David Onley Kathleen Wynne Ontario Liberal Party Majority
Quebec Pierre Duchesne Philippe Couillard Quebec Liberal Party Majority
Nova Scotia John James Grant Stephen McNeil Nova Scotia Liberal Party Majority
New Brunswick Graydon Nicholas David Alward New Brunswick Progressive Conservative Party Majority
Manitoba Philip S. Lee Greg Selinger New Democratic Party of Manitoba Majority
British Columbia Judith Guichon Christy Clark British Columbia Liberal Party Majority
Prince Edward Island Frank Lewis Robert Ghiz Prince Edward Island Liberal Party Majority
Saskatchewan Vaughn Solomon Schofield Brad Wall Saskatchewan Party Majority
Alberta Donald Ethell Dave Hancock Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta Majority
Newfoundland and Labrador Frank Fagan Tom Marshall Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador Majority
Northwest Territories George Tuccaro Bob McLeod Consensus government None
Yukon Doug Phillips Darrell Pasloski Yukon Party Majority
Nunavut Edna Elias Peter Taptuna Consensus government None

Ceremonial territory

Canadian National Vimy Memorial – For First World War Canadian dead and First World War Canadian missing, presumed dead in France.

The extraterritorial status and are thus subject to French law.

Proposed provinces and territories

Since Confederation in 1867, there have been several proposals for new Canadian provinces and territories. The Constitution of Canada requires an legislatively to create a territory than a province.

In late 2004, [50]

See also


  1. ^ “Provinces and Territories”. Government of Canada. 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  2. ^ Place name (2013). “Census Profile”. Statistic Canada. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  3. ^ 978-1-55365-082-9. 
  4. ^ “Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses”. Statistic Canada. 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2012. 
  5. ^ “Land and freshwater area, by province and territory”. Statistics Canada. 2005. Retrieved August 4, 2013. 
  6. ^ Olivier Coche, François Vaillancourt, Marc-Antoine Cadieux, Jamie Lee Ronson (2012). “Official Language Policies of the Canadian Provinces”. Fraser Institute. Retrieved August 6, 2012. 
  7. ^ “Guide to the Canadian House of Commons”. Parliament of Canada. 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  8. ^ “Northwest Territories Act”. Department of Justice Canada. 1985. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  9. ^ “Yukon Act”. Department of Justice Canada. 2002. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  10. ^ Department of Justice Canada (1993). “Nunavut Act”. Retrieved January 27, 2007. 
  11. ^ Northwest Territories Official Languages Act, 1988 (as amended 1988, 1991-1992, 2003)
  12. ^ “OCOL – Statistics on Official Languages in Yukon”. Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. 2011. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  13. ^ “Nunavut’s Official Languages”. Language Commissioner of Nunavut. 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  14. ^ 978-0-8020-8607-5. 
  15. ^ 978-0-313-29366-5. 
  16. ^ 978-0-8108-7504-3. 
  17. ^ Atlas of Canada. “Territorial evolution”. Retrieved January 27, 2007. 
  18. ^ “Confederation Rejected: Newfoundland and the Canadian Confederation, 1864-1869: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage”. Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage. 2000. Retrieved July 29, 2013. 
  19. 978-0-7486-2617-5. 
  20. 978-1-55130-371-0. 
  21. 978-0-8020-6978-8. 
  22. 978-1-61069-106-2. 
  23. 978-0-385-67290-0. 
  24. ^ A. Oye Cukwurah (1967). The Settlement of Boundary Disputes in International Law. Manchester University Press. p. 186. GGKEY:EXSJZ7S92QE. 
  25. 978-1-4426-0493-3. 
  26. 978-1-57958-436-8. 
  27. 978-92-64-19832-6. 
  28. 978-1-4381-2671-5. 
  29. 978-0-7425-0019-8. 
  30. 978-0-8386-3289-5. 
  31. ^ 978-0-88755-315-8. 
  32. 978-0-7735-7111-2. 
  33. 978-1-4597-0084-0. 
  34. 978-1-4426-6158-5. 
  35. 978-0-88977-164-2. 
  36. 978-0-7391-3280-7. 
  37. 978-1-55488-980-8. 
  38. 978-1-4597-0016-1. 
  39. 978-1-4426-0368-4. 
  40. 978-0-19-533535-4. 
  41. ^ 978-0-7748-4111-5. 
  42. 978-0-88645-184-4. 
  43. 978-1-55339-008-4. 
  44. ^ “Lieutenant Governors and Territorial Commissioners”. Parliament of Canada. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  45. ^ “Premiers”. Parliament of Canada. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  46. ^ 978-1-4597-0345-2. 
  47. “Design and Construction of the Vimy Ridge Memorial”. Veteran Affairs Canada. August 8, 1998. Retrieved July 20, 2007. 
  48. Government of Canada. Retrieved March 17, 2010. “An amendment to the Constitution of Canada in relation to the following matters may be made only in accordance with subsection 38(1)…notwithstanding any other law or practice, the establishment of new provinces.” 
  49. 978-0-7705-1742-7. 
  50. ^ CBC News (November 23, 2004). “Northern territories ‘eventually’ to be given provincial status”. Retrieved January 27, 2007. 

Further reading

External links

Source: Wikipedia

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